In this vignette, we illustrate how to use this package to evaluate operating characteristics of RABR with a continuous endpoint by simulations. Suppose that there are 3 active treatments and a placebo, and all groups have the same standard deviation at 1. We use Dunnett adjustment to control multiplicity with the one-sided significance level at 2.5%. To save computational time, we use 10^4 iterations for type I error rate calculation and 10^3 iterations for power calculation for demonstration. In practice, one can use at least 10^5 to stabilize results.

First, we evaluate type I error rate when all treatment groups have the same response mean, for example 0. The error rates in pairwise comparisons and multiplicity adjusted error rates are controlled at the nominal level 2.5%. The randomization vector R is considered at (3, 4, 2, 1), which means that placebo has fixed randomization probability at 3/10, the best performing group has 4/10, the second-best group has 2/10, and the worst group has 1/10.

```
library(RABR)
library(parallel)
library(doParallel)
```

`## Loading required package: foreach`

`## Loading required package: iterators`

```
= RABRcontinuous(MeanVec = c(0, 0, 0, 0),
RABR.null.fit SdVec = c(1, 1, 1, 1),
M = 60,
N = 120,
R = c(3, 4, 2, 1),
Nitt = 10^4,
Alpha = 0.025,
Ncluster = 2,
Seed = 12345,
MultiMethod = "dunnett")
## Probability of rejecting each elementary hypothesis without multiplicity adjustment
print(RABR.null.fit$ProbUnadj)
```

`## [1] 0.0236 0.0208 0.0212`

```
## Probability of rejecting each elementary null hypothesis with multiplicity adjustment
print(RABR.null.fit$ProbAdj)
```

`## [1] 0.0104 0.0078 0.0094`

```
## Probability of rejecting at least one elementary null hypothesis with multiplicity adjustment
print(RABR.null.fit$ProbAdjOverall)
```

`## [1] 0.023`

Then, we compute power with the assumption that placebo has mean 0.43, and three active treatments have 0.48, 0.63, 1.2. The randomization vector is set at (9, 9, 1, 1) to target at 42 for placebo and 42 for the selected treatment group (S1).

```
= RABRcontinuous(MeanVec = c(0.43, 0.48, 0.63, 1.2),
RABR.alter.fit SdVec = c(1, 1, 1, 1),
M = 60,
N = 120,
R = c(9, 9, 1, 1),
Nitt = 10^3,
Alpha = 0.025,
Ncluster = 2,
Seed = 12345,
MultiMethod = "dunnett")
## Probability of selecting (if unadjusted p-value is the smallest among all active treatment groups) AND confirming (if the adjusted p-value is smaller than the significance level) the efficacy of each active treatment group.
print(RABR.alter.fit$ProbAdjSelected)
```

`## [1] 0.001 0.011 0.802`

```
## ASN Average sample size of placebo and selected treatment groups (S1, S2, S3).
print(RABR.alter.fit$ASN)
```

`## [1] 41.981 40.927 19.082 18.010`

In this section, we illustrate how to choose hyperparameters M and R in RABR to meet a specific study objective. There are three active treatment groups: D1, D2 and D3. We denote the best selected group as S1, and next one as S2, and the worst one as S3. Consider N = 120 with the objective of having 42 for both placebo and the treatment groups. We consider the following 5 candidates:

- M = 40, R = (8, 8, 3, 1)
- M = 60, R = (9, 9, 1, 1)
- M = 24, R = (9, 9, 5, 1)
- M = 40, R = (16, 16, 7, 1)
- M = 40, R = (4, 4, 1, 1)

Based on the simulation results shown below, the 4th candidate has the highest overall power of detecting a significant treatment effect in at least one treatment group, and the highest probability of selecting and confirming the efficacy of the best group (D3). The 2nd candidate has the most accurate ASN of S1 to reach the target value of 42. Study team can choose the 4th candidate if power is more important, while select the 2nd candidate if a more accurate ASN is appealing. More discussion on the impact of hyperparameters in RABR can found in Section 5.3 of Zhan et al. 2020.

```
= matrix(NA, nrow = 5, ncol = 10)
output.mat colnames(output.mat) = c("M", "R", "Prob_D1", "Prob_D2", "Prob_D3", "Prob_ALO",
"ASN_PBO", "ASN_S1", "ASN_S2", "ASN_S3")
= data.frame(output.mat)
output.mat
for (scen.ind in 1:5){
if (scen.ind==1){M.cand = 40; R.cand = c(8, 8, 3, 1)}
if (scen.ind==2){M.cand = 60; R.cand = c(9, 9, 1, 1)}
if (scen.ind==3){M.cand = 24; R.cand = c(9, 9, 5, 1)}
if (scen.ind==4){M.cand = 40; R.cand = c(16, 16, 7, 1)}
if (scen.ind==5){M.cand = 40; R.cand = c(4, 4, 1, 1)}
= RABRcontinuous(MeanVec = c(0.43, 0.48, 0.63, 1.2),
RABR.sen.fit SdVec = c(1, 1, 1, 1),
M = M.cand,
N = 120,
R = R.cand,
Nitt = 10^3,
Alpha = 0.025,
Ncluster = 2,
Seed = 12345,
MultiMethod = "dunnett")
$M[scen.ind] = M.cand
output.mat$R[scen.ind] = paste0("(", paste0(R.cand,collapse = ","), ")")
output.matc("Prob_D1", "Prob_D2", "Prob_D3")] = RABR.sen.fit$ProbAdjSelected
output.mat[scen.ind, $Prob_ALO[scen.ind] = RABR.sen.fit$ProbAdjOverall
output.matc("ASN_PBO", "ASN_S1", "ASN_S2", "ASN_S3")] = RABR.sen.fit$ASN
output.mat[scen.ind,
}print(output.mat)
```

```
## M R Prob_D1 Prob_D2 Prob_D3 Prob_ALO ASN_PBO ASN_S1 ASN_S2 ASN_S3
## 1 40 (8,8,3,1) 0.002 0.008 0.816 0.827 42.037 40.163 21.942 15.858
## 2 60 (9,9,1,1) 0.001 0.011 0.802 0.815 41.981 40.927 19.082 18.010
## 3 24 (9,9,5,1) 0.003 0.011 0.809 0.823 42.007 40.129 24.080 13.784
## 4 40 (16,16,7,1) 0.002 0.008 0.818 0.828 42.071 40.417 23.146 14.366
## 5 40 (4,4,1,1) 0.001 0.011 0.802 0.814 42.052 39.615 19.877 18.456
```