bpbounds: Nonparametric bounds for the average causal effect for one-sample (bivariate) and two-sample (trivariate) data

R-CMD-check Coverage status CRAN status RStudio_CRAN_mirror_downloads_badge r-universe

R package implementing the nonparametric bounds for the average causal effect of Balke and Pearl (1997).


Install the released version of bpbounds from CRAN:


or from the MRCIEU R-universe

install.packages("bpbounds", repos = c("https://mrcieu.r-universe.dev", "https://cloud.r-project.org"))

Or install the development version from my r-universe

install.packages("bpbounds", repos = c("https://remlapmot.r-universe.dev", "https://cloud.r-project.org"))

Or install the development version from GitHub with:

# install.packages("remotes") 

Shiny App

There is a Shiny app demonstrating the package at: https://remlapmot.shinyapps.io/bpbounds/.

Package website

The helpfiles and vignette are shown on the package website at: https://remlapmot.github.io/bpbounds/.


Tom Palmer (maintainer, tom.palmer@bristol.ac.uk), Roland Ramsahai, Vanessa Didelez, Nuala Sheehan.


Balke A, Pearl J. Bounds on Treatment Effects from studies with imperfect compliance. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1997, 92, 439, 1171-1176, doi: 10.1080/01621459.1997.10474074.